Experts provide help with assignments of all academic levels and disciplines.
Probably one of the most lively and rich cultures of the world is of the Jamaican culture. It is perhaps due to its exotic surroundings and the ...Culture,Education,English Language,Jamaica,
1. What led to the eventual woes experienced by Hong Kong Disneyland in its first year of operation? How should Hong Kong Disneyland rectify it...Disneyland,Hong Kong,My Dream Destination Disneyland,
With the current application of 802.11b wireless solution Highbrow Ed is using, hot spots are inefficient for application delivery, and to manag...Network,Technology,
Picture yourself very hungry but struck in work, you will be distressed and very hard to concentrate on the job in front of you. If it is the ca...Food,Health,Learning,Nutrition,
Marijuana, the “Killer Drug” as it has been called, has been around for longer than you think a. People really don’t know the origins or the pro...Health,Marijuana,
“Worldwide over 1 million people die due to lung cancer each year. It is estimated that cigarette smoking explains almost 90% of lung cancer ris...Bad Eating Habits,Bad Habits,Healthy Lifestyle,
On graph paper, plot the milliliters of reactant #1 versus volume of precipitate for each reaction. For the copper chloride graph, draw t...Chemistry Stoichiometry,
TCO A: The company is preparing to make a substantial change to the payment and advantages program for the next. This change will impact all bra...Change,Management,
Everyone by nature has good and bad qualities. A Boss is no exception to this, therefore, the best boss I’ve ever had is also in some ways the w...Boss,
Introduction“Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, founded in 1914, specializes in the manufacturing and marketing of rubb...Business,Company,Free Essays,
Starbucks is the world’s largest specialty coffee retailer, with over 1,700 coffee shops in 55 countries. For years, Starbucks grew throughout t...Help,Starbucks,Technology,
A pattern has begun in the current years, where people take part in organizations that commonly claim to be helping developing countries. This t...Altruism,Gap Year,Teacher,Tourism,Volunteering,
What if someone in this room was suddenly living on the streets? Should I change my views and opinions on them and what if I did? How do you thi...Homeless,Homelessness,
Linda Lowman is a woman who seemed to be taken for granted in the Lowman household but that did not mean she was powerless. “The Great Depressio...Death Of A Salesman,Women,
Boston Chicken Inc is chain of fast food restaurants, and also in the business of take-out home cooked food. The main business strategy of Bosto...Boston,Fast Food,Franchising,
My dear countrymen, I strongly believe that the purchase of Alaska will help America in a number of ways. This bargain will prove fruitful for o...Purchase Of Alaska,Russia,
Pelts Corporation is a company that sells clothes for men, women, and children. They also have a wide variety of fashion accessories; they also ...Inventory,Sales,Technology,
Career Options After Pursuing a Degree in PsychologyChoosing a major or a degree field to go into after graduating from high school is one ...Career,Education,Psychology,
IntroductionOvarian cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women. It is considered to be one of the most common types of ...Breast Cancer,Cancer,Research,
“Love has no culture, boundaries, race and religion. It is pure and beautiful like early morning sunrise falling in lake.” is a quote by Santosh...Love,Novels,
They Came Before Columbus
Ivan Van Sertima was born in Guyana, South America. He graduated from the School of Oriental and African Studies (London University) and the Rutgers Graduate School and holds degrees in African Studies and Anthropology. From 1957 – 1959 he served as a Press and broadcasting Officer in the Guyana Information Services. During several years in the 1960’s he broadcasted weekly from Britain to Africa and the Caribbean. Ivan Van Sertima works a literary critic, a linguist, and an anthropologist and has made a name in all three fields.
As a literary critic, he is the author of Caribbean Writers, a collection of critical essays on the Caribbean novel. He was honored for his work in this field by being asked by the Nobel Committee of the Swedish Academy to nominate candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature from 1976-1980. As a linguist, he is also the compiler of the Swahili Dictionary of Legal Terms, based on his field work in Tanzania, East Africa, in 1967.
blackwebportal. com/wire/DA. cfm? ArticleID=596; Internet; accessed 11 October 2005) From the history courses we usually get the information that the first Africans who arrived to America were solely slaves, brought in special slave-ships.
In this way the picture of the black man who is everlasting slave of the white people is created in the minds of the most Euro-Americans. With the aim to justify historical crimes of slavery and colonialism, Americans as well as Europeans have invented a net of evasion and falsehood and now present these all as historical facts. The whole history of mankind is written in such a way that it does not reflect the achievements of black population from African continent and their contribution into the world culture. In such a manner the impression is created that such contribution does not exist at all.
And this will be the usual consequence when a common person may arrive to the conclusion about “Negro inferiority” and this person will relatively look for the justification for all these crimes committed by the Europeans in relation to black people. The book They Came Before Columbus by the professor Ivan Van Sertima presents cogent arguments for existence of culture and science in aboriginal population of African continent long before Columbus epoch. The overall purpose of the book is to destroy the myth of inferiority of the black.
Sertima’s work focuses largely on two main topics that is the contact between African and American towards the close of the Bronze Age (circa 948-680 B. C. ) and the Mandingo-Songhay trading voyages (from early fourteenth to late fifteenth century). According to conventional history, Christopher Columbus “discovered” America. The natives who had lived there for centuries did not matter. But Ivan Van Sertima presents an array of evidence to support the claim that the Africans were present in the New World centuries before Columbus.
Long before Columbus started traveling, Africans had been to the Americas on expeditions, had lived among and traded with the natives, and had in fact influenced the native American civilizations greatly. The presence of Africans in North and South America has until recently been ignored, if not kept secret, by historians as a part of the larger concealment of African history. The significant difference, unlike Kemet (Ancient Egypt), is that the African presence in America presents a rather more difficult challenge in as far as modern history claims that a certain Christopher Columbus “discovered” America.
When the Africans arrived, they infused their culture into the existing cultural terrain of the native people and also embraced their gods, a concept well established in Africa for thousands of years. By so doing the Nubian-Kemets recognized the Amerindian gods, which in effect acknowledges the Ameri-Indians as custodians and spiritual title-holders to the land; the Africans did not discover America. The land and its people were already there. Available archaeological evidence and definitive historical accounts point to pre-Columbian West African expeditions across the Atlantic between 1307 – 1312AD.
The work of Al-Umars, a 14th century Islamic historian, who recorded the visit of Mansa Kankan Musa I, one of the most remarkable Mandinga emperors in Mali, when he stopped over in the Egyptian capital, Cairo, enroute to Mecca in 1324 AD, testify to the Mandinga expeditions across the Atlantic. Umars’ account quotes Mansa Musa as saying that his predecessor had launched two expeditions from West Africa to discover the limits of the Atlantic Ocean.
Umari, writing a few decades after Mansa Musa’s visit to Mecca, states it in his writings. Emperor Abubakari II [the immediate predecessor of Mansa Musa] was the monarch who lunched the expedition with 2,000 ships. The expedition was likely to have reached Attilles or other points bordering the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. The Mandinga traded gold and woven cloth called “almaizar” (a cloth often made in various colors and used as a single garment from which other garments were made) with the Amerindians.
Columbus knew the source of the clothes, hence his ability to express an informed opinion in his days that the Indian “almaizar” was “like those brought from Guinea, from the Rivers of Sierra Leone and of no difference”. It is conceivable that the Mandinga who already occupied various places on St. Vincent island and were familiar with the terrain, would have welcomed (in the 15th century) fugitive Africans (their kith and kin) running away from slavery. The earliest African presence in the Americas is that of the people of Nubia and Kemet.
This was proved by the discovery in 1858 of a gigantic (head) self-portrait with Nubian features carved out of single basalt measuring 8ft by 18ft in circumference, and dating back to 800-600 BC. It was discovered in the village of Tres Zapotes in Mexico. Seventeen of these heads have since been discovered all over South America. In 1869, Jose Meglar, a 19th century Mexican scholar, wrote a brief description of the sculpture in the Mexican Society of Geography and Statistic Bulletin.
But this article was met with silence by Euro-American scholars, despite the physical evidence on the ground, such as the Colossal Head. The taboo was finally lifted in 1939, when the American scholar, Matthew Stirling, led an archaeological team to Tres Zapotes in Mexico and excavated the Colossal Head that Melgar had mentioned 77 years earlier. Additionally, hundreds of images of Africans in terra cotta, made between 1500 BC and 1500 AD, have been unearthed in the Americas, affirming a prolonged presence of African ancestors in that part of the world.
The earliest settlers in Central America date from 3000-2000BC, but the major civilization that preceded them all was the Olmec, which influenced all the American civilizations, including the Atzec, the Mayans and the Incas. The Olmec civilization [1200-400BC] was all pervasive, specifically; it was at La Venta in Mexico that the Olmec lay the foundation of ancient America, marked by pyramid complexes and hieroglyphic writing, a trait which was later to be assimilated by other civilizations in the Americas, including the Maya.
In all their activities Olmec civilization underwent influence of Nubian-Kemetic civilization. The debate now being waged in academic circles is not so much that Africans occupied elite positions in the ancient American civilizations, but from which part of Africa they came from thousands of years ago? Africans, contrary to conventional historical accounts, had been sailing not in dug-out canoes but ocean-going vessels from as far back as 3800 BC.
A painting of an ocean-going vessel has been found from the era of Ta-Seti, the first major African civilization that preceded Kemet. The first pyramid in the Americas was built at a ceremonial location. Commenting on the American pyramids, Dr Ivan Van Sertima notices in his book that the pyramids in Mexico are identical in orientation to that of Kemet. During the Equinox, the interplay between sunlight and shadows forms triangular patterns, creating images of serpents slithering down the northern staircase of the pyramids as in Kemet.
The striking similarities between the Olmec civilization and Kemet can be seen in the cultural and scientific arenas. For example, there is an existing Olmec painting of a dignitary wearing a double crown. He is offering an object with Kemetic symbols on it, to a person of distinctively African appearance in the Temple at Cerro de la Piedre in Mexico. Again, the nine gods of Kemet mentioned in the book of creation is equally found in America and recorded in the pyramids in Mexico as the “nine lords of the night”.
So, taking into account these prolific evidence of the influential role of ancient African civilization in formation and development of the successive civilizations we cannot but admit Africa’s contribution into the world culture and civilization overall. Bibliography: Wonham, Henry B. Criticism and the Color Line: Desegregating American Literary Studies. Rutgers University Press, 1996. Sertima, Ivan Van. They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America. Random House, Incorporated, 1976.Date: Oct 14,2021